§ 14-10-113. Disposition of property

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COLORADO REVISED STATUTES:

§ 14-10-113. Disposition of property

(1) In a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or in a proceeding for legal separation or in a proceeding for disposition of property following the previous dissolution of marriage by a court which at the time of the prior dissolution of the marriage lacked personal jurisdiction over the absent spouse or lacked jurisdiction to dispose of the property, the court, subject to the provisions of subsection (7) of this section, shall set apart to each spouse his or her property and shall divide the marital property, without regard to marital misconduct, in such proportions as the court deems just after considering all relevant factors including:

(a) The contribution of each spouse to the acquisition of the marital property, including the contribution of a spouse as homemaker;

(b) The value of the property set apart to each spouse;

(c) The economic circumstances of each spouse at the time the division of property is to become effective, including the desirability of awarding the family home or the right to live therein for reasonable periods to the spouse with whom any children reside the majority of the time; and

(d) Any increases or decreases in the value of the separate property of the spouse during the marriage or the depletion of the separate property for marital purposes.

(2) For purposes of this article only, and subject to the provisions of subsection (7) of this section, “marital property” means all property acquired by either spouse subsequent to the marriage except:

(a) Property acquired by gift, bequest, devise, or descent;

(b) Property acquired in exchange for property acquired prior to the marriage or in exchange for property acquired by gift, bequest, devise, or descent;

(c) Property acquired by a spouse after a decree of legal separation; and

(d) Property excluded by valid agreement of the parties.

(3) Subject to the provisions of subsection (7) of this section, all property acquired by either spouse subsequent to the marriage and prior to a decree of legal separation is presumed to be marital property, regardless of whether title is held individually or by the spouses in some form of coownership such as joint tenancy, tenancy in common, tenancy by the entirety, and community property. The presumption of marital property described in this subsection (3) is overcome by a showing that the property was acquired by a method listed in subsection (2) of this section.

(4) Subject to the provisions of subsection (7) of this section, an asset of a spouse acquired prior to the marriage or in accordance with subsection (2) (a) or (2) (b) of this section shall be considered as marital property, for purposes of this article only, to the extent that its present value exceeds its value at the time of the marriage or at the time of acquisition if acquired after the marriage.

(5) For purposes of this section only, property shall be valued as of the date of the decree or as of the date of the hearing on disposition of property if such hearing precedes the date of the decree.

(6) (a) (I) Notwithstanding any anti-assignment, anti-alienation, or other provision of law to the contrary, all retirement benefits of any nature for public employees from a plan described in section 401 (a), 403 (b), 414 (d), or 457 of the federal “Internal Revenue Code of 1986″, as amended, that is established pursuant to Colorado law shall be, in all actions for dissolution of marriage, legal separation, and declaration of invalidity of marriage, divisible directly by the plan upon written agreement of the parties to such an action pursuant to paragraph (c) of this subsection (6).

(II) The provisions of this subsection (6) shall apply to all dissolution of marriage, legal separation, and declaration of invalidity of marriage actions filed on or after January 1, 1997, and all dissolution of marriage, legal separation, or declaration of invalidity of marriage actions filed prior to January 1, 1997, in which the court did not enter a final property division order concerning the parties’ public employee retirement benefits prior to January 1, 1997.

(b) As used in this subsection (6), unless the context otherwise requires:

(I) “Alternate payee” means a party to a dissolution of marriage, legal separation, or declaration of invalidity action who is not the participant of the public employee retirement plan divided or to be divided but who is married to or was married to the participant and who is to receive, is receiving, or has received all or a portion of the participant’s retirement benefit by means of a written agreement as described in paragraph (c) of this subsection (6).

(II) “Defined benefit plan” means a retirement plan that is not a defined contribution plan and that usually provides benefits as a percentage of the participant’s highest average salary, based on the plan’s benefit formula and the participant’s age and service credit at the time of retirement.

(III) “Defined contribution plan” means a retirement plan that provides for an individual retirement account for each participant and the benefits of which are based solely on the amount contributed to the participant’s account and that includes any income, expenses, gains, losses, or forfeitures of accounts of other participants that may be allocated to the participant’s account.

(IV) “Participant” means the person who is an active, inactive, or retired member of the public employee retirement plan.

(c) (I) The parties may enter into a marital agreement pursuant to part 3 of article 2 of this title or a separation agreement pursuant to section 14-10-112 concerning the division of a public employee retirement benefit between the parties pursuant to a written agreement. The parties shall submit such written agreement to the plan administrator within ninety days after entry of the decree and the permanent orders regarding property distribution in a proceeding for dissolution of marriage, legal separation, or declaration of invalidity of marriage.

(II) A written agreement dividing a public employee retirement benefit shall:

(A) Specify the full legal name of the retirement plan or plans to which it applies;

(B) Specify the name, social security number, and last-known mailing address of the participant and the alternate payee as well as the alternate payee’s relationship to the participant;

(C) For an agreement concerning a defined benefit plan, specify the distribution method, as described in subparagraph (III) of this paragraph (c), subject, if the plan permits, to benefit adjustments payable at the same time and in the same manner as any benefit adjustments applied to the participant’s distribution;

(D) For an agreement concerning a defined contribution plan, specify the alternate payee’s portion of the participant’s account as a fixed lump-sum amount, or as a percentage, in either case, as of a specified date, from specific accounts of the participant and, unless the plan adopts rules and regulations pursuant to paragraph (d) of this subsection (6) permitting the plan to retain the alternate payee’s portion of the participant’s account, require that distribution to the alternate payee be made within one hundred twenty days after a certified court order approving the agreement has been submitted to and received by the plan;

(E) Not provide for payments to the alternate payee or to the participant for which he or she would not otherwise be eligible if there were no dissolution of marriage, legal separation, or declaration of invalidity action pending;

(F) For an agreement concerning a defined benefit plan, not require the plan to pay the alternate payee prior to the date payments commence to the participant or prior to the participant attaining age sixty-five or actual retirement date, whichever date is earlier, or at such later date as the parties may otherwise agree in writing;

(G) For an agreement concerning a defined benefit plan, provide that the alternate payee’s rights to payments terminate upon the involuntary termination of benefits payable to the participant or upon the death of the alternate payee, whichever occurs first, unless the parties agree to elect, or have already elected, a benefit option under the plan that provides for a cobeneficiary benefit to the alternate payee;

(H) Provide that the manner of payment shall be in a form or type permissible under the plan. The agreement shall not require through this subsection (6) the payment of a benefit, benefit amount, or distribution option not otherwise set out in the plan document or statute.

(I) Not require the plan to pay benefits that are already required to be paid to another alternate payee or are already subject to an assignment or lien;

(J) Specify that it shall apply to successor plans;

(K) Comply with any rules or procedures promulgated pursuant to paragraph (d) of this subsection (6); and

(L) Specify that, once approved by the court, the order approving the agreement shall be certified by the clerk of the court and submitted to and received by the retirement plan at least thirty days before the plan may make its first payment.

(III) The written agreement between the parties described in subparagraph (II) of this paragraph (c) shall contain only one method or formula to be applied to divide the defined benefit plan. For purposes of sub-subparagraph (C) of subparagraph (II) of this paragraph (c), the parties may select any one of the following methods by which to divide the defined benefit plan:

(A) A fixed monetary amount;

(B) A fixed percentage of the payment to the participant;

(C) The time-rule formula determined by dividing the number of months of service credit acquired under the plan during the marriage as set forth in the court’s order by the number of months of service credit in such plan at the time of the participant’s retirement as determined by the plan, which quotient shall be multiplied by a percentage specified in the court’s order, and the product thereof shall be further multiplied by the amount of the payment to the participant at the date of retirement;

(D) A formula determined by dividing the number of months of service credit acquired under the plan during the marriage as set forth in the court’s order by the number of months of service credit in such plan as of the date of the decree as determined by the plan, regardless of when the participant is expected to retire, which quotient shall be multiplied by a percentage specified in the court’s order, and the product thereof shall be further multiplied by the amount of the payment the participant would be entitled to receive as if the participant were to retire and receive an unreduced benefit on the date of the decree; or

(E) Any other method or formula mutually agreed upon by the parties that specifies a dollar amount or percentage payable to the alternate payee.

(d) The trustees or the administrator of each retirement plan may promulgate rules or procedures governing the implementation of this subsection (6) with respect to public employee retirement plans that they administer. Such rules or procedures may include the requirement that a standardized form be used by the parties and the court for an order approving the parties’ agreement to be effective as well as other provisions consistent with the purpose of this subsection (6).

(e) Compliance with the provisions of this subsection (6) by a public employee retirement plan shall not subject the plan to any portions of the federal “Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974″, as amended, that do not otherwise affect governmental plans generally. Any plan that reasonably complies with an order approving an agreement entered into pursuant to this subsection (6) shall be relieved of liability for payments made to the parties subject to such order.

(f) A court shall have no jurisdiction to enter an order dividing a public employee retirement benefit except upon written agreement of the parties pursuant to this subsection (6). A court shall have no jurisdiction to modify an order approving a written agreement of the parties dividing a public employee retirement benefit unless the parties have agreed in writing to the modification. A court may retain jurisdiction to supervise the implementation of the order dividing the retirement benefits.

(7) (a) For purposes of subsections (1) to (4) of this section only, except with respect to gifts of nonbusiness tangible personal property, gifts from one spouse to another, whether in trust or not, shall be presumed to be marital property and not separate property. This presumption may be rebutted by clear and convincing evidence.

(b) For purposes of subsections (1) to (4) of this section only, “property” and “an asset of a spouse” shall not include any interest a party may have as an heir at law of a living person or any interest under any donative third party instrument which is amendable or revocable, including but not limited to third-party wills, revocable trusts, life insurance, and retirement benefit instruments, nor shall any such interests be considered as an economic circumstance or other factor.

(c) (I) The provisions of this subsection (7) shall apply to all causes of action filed on or after July 1, 2002. The provisions of this subsection (7) shall also apply to all causes of action filed before said date in which a final property disposition order concerning matters affected by this subsection (7) was not entered prior to July 1, 2002.

(II) For purposes of this paragraph (c), “final property disposition order” means a property disposition order for which the time to appeal has expired or for which all pending appeals have been finally concluded.

History. L. 71: R&RE, p. 525, § 1. C.R.S. 1963: § 46-1-13. L. 73: pp. 553, 555, §§ 6, 7, 12. L. 75: IP(1) amended, p. 210, § 25, effective July 16. L. 96: (6) added, p. 1457, § 1, effective January 1, 1997. L. 97: (6)(a) amended, p. 100, § 1, effective March 24. L. 98: (6)(c)(I) and (6)(c)(II)(C) amended and (6)(c)(III) added, p. 355, § 1, effective August 5; (1)(c) amended, p. 1397, § 40, effective February 1, 1999. L. 99: (6)(c)(I), (6)(c)(II)(L), and (6)(f) amended, p. 46, § 1, effective March 15. L. 2002: (6)(a)(I) amended, p. 138, § 1, effective March 27; IP(1), IP(2), (3), and (4) amended and (7) added, p. 1054, § 1, effective June 1. L. 2004: (6)(a)(I) amended, p. 222, § 5, effective April 1.

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